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Video games are an interactive entertainment medium that allows a player to engage with a virtual interface to produce visual feedback on a screen. As the technology and game modes have evolved over time, the core entertainment value of video games has remained the same over time. 

HistoryEdit

1940-1949 (Begining of an Industry) Edit

Cathode ray tube amusement device - schematic

Cathode ray tube amusement device

The 1940’s mark the beginning of video games. Emerging after WWII, Goldsmith Jr.’s game was patented as a "Cathode ray amusement device" on January 25, 1947. It is influenced by war by it being a missile simulator. The game were 'designed' rather than 'programmed' because it used analog circuitry rather than digital. This entailed a rewiring and rebuilding of the machine if you were to reprogram it. The devices are not integrated with television as in later decades.

In 1947, Alan Turing and colleague Dietrich Prinz wrote a theory for how to program the computer to play chess for Manchester University's computer.


1950-1959 (Computer Programming is Introduced)Edit

In 1951, the game Nim was introduced for the NIMROD computer, presented at the Festival of Britain. This was the first time a computer was specifically programed to display and play a game. Soon, the IBM 701 and MIT's TX-0 were beginning to be programed to play games. In 1955, the military started to design video games. They started with Hutspiel, using players to represent opposing factions in combat simulations. In the latter half of the decade, sports games and puzzle games were introduced. In 1958, William Higinbotham designed Tennis for Two and Tic Tac Toe was introduced one year later. The video game phenomenon soon became broadcast on national television, attracting further interest and popularity.


1960-1969 (Video Games and Television Combined)Edit

In 1961, MIT students created the game Spacewar, considered to be the first shooter game. Aspiring to put programming in the hands of the masses, by 1964, BASIC computer language was developed and quickly became the most common programing language. Shortly after, developers looked to display games on television and only three years later would it be a reality. Programmer Ralph Baer introduced the “Brown Box” which allowed gamers to play Tennis among a variety of others[1]. One year later, he patented his idea for an interactive television game.


1970-1979 (Arcade Mania)Edit

Magnavox-Odyssey-Console-Set

Baer's Magnavox Odyssey

The arcade game industry started in 1972 when Atari developed a table tennis game called Pong. Baer’s patented interactive television game console was also released in 1972—the Magnavox Odyssey[2]. The U.S. arcade game industry started in 1972 when Atari developed a table tennis game called Pong. Pong was introduced to the home console market in 1975 as an accessory for the Magnavox. In 1977, Atari released the Atari 2600 to compete with the emerging home entertainment market, making video games accessible to many families across the U.S. market. Over in Japan, the arcade industry continued to grow and with the 1978 introduction of Space Invaders, Japan saw a major increase in arcade gaming[3].
Super Mario Bros. box

Super Mario Bros. cover art


1980-1989 (Revival of the Industry) Edit

At the beginning of the 80s an overall revival began of the video game industry that had largely grown stagnant due to lack of innovation. This was notably started in 1985 with the introduction of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) more commonly known as the Famicom (Family Computer) in Japan. The NES was the first video game system that sold into the millions[4]. Notable games for the system were: Super Mario Bros., The Legend of Zelda, Metroid, and Excitebike[5]. Near the end of the decade we also saw Nintendo  continue the trend of reviving the video game industry with the introduction of the company's first handheld console in 1989 called the Game Boy. According to Nintendo's official site to this day the Game Boy sold over 100 million units[6]. The system was most notable for the pack in game that came along with it Tetris which was created in Russia[7].


1990-2000 (Console Wars) Edit

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The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time official wallpaper

The decade of the 90s is best known for the rise of the 'Console War'. The industry was starting to turn massive profits and other companies wanted to attempt to take a piece of the action. As such we saw the introduction of many new consoles beginning with Nintendo's second iteration of the home console called the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) the system boasted better visuals and through the use of 16-bit graphics[8]. The rival company against Nintendo was Sega and their own home entertainment console known as the Sega Genesis. The system touted 32-bit graphic capabilities but lacked support from third parties like Nintendo had. Sega is famous for their aggressive marketing campaign against Nintendo using the slogan "Sega does what Ninten-won't"[9].  With the implementation of large storage and more detailed sprites it allowed for larger worlds to be created and also allowed for deeper stories to be told as well.

Near the end of the decade, there was a transition from 2-D sprites to the inclusion of 3-D polygonal graphics. This began with the release of Sony entertainments first home video game console known as the PlayStation in 1995 and was soon followed by Nintendo in 1996 with the release of the Nintendo 64[10]. Both consoles launched a new direction for gaming allowing for massive worlds to be created and lengthy adventures. Violence in video games started to be questioned by parents and governments as the digital worlds became more and more lifelike. Notable releases for both so consoles are Final Fantasy 7, Twisted Metal, Crash Bandicoot, The legend of Zelda Ocarina of Time, Super Mario 64, 007 Golden Eye, and Mario Kart 64. Other notable video games of the decade include: Blizzard's famous Warcraft: Orcs and Humans, Pokemon Red and Blue Version,  and Sony Entertainments Hugely popular MMO Everquest [11].


2000-2013 (Mainstream/Casual Shift) Edit

This decade leading to the present saw the most amount of growth from an industry standpoint: multiple iterations of consoles from many different companies and the shift of gaming as a geek culture mentality to a truly mainstream form of entertainment. Early in the decade, Microsoft joined the console war with the release of the Xbox and 4 years later a new iteration called the Xbox 360. Nintendo released its new console in 2006 titled the Nintendo Wii, aimed to market to the family and introduced motion controls to the home console industry. This system was highly successful and most well known for the bundled in game Wii Sports. Sony also released ttwo systems in this time period titled in sequential order the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation 3.

Throughout this era, there was a rise of many new genres in the video game industry. In 2000, Will Wright creates the real life simulator The Sims, one of the best selling computer games, which has since inspired 2 sequels and a large amount of expansion packs. Harmonix took the industry by storm with the introduction of Guitar Hero and the eventual evolution to Rock Band which is released in 2007. Blizzard released the critically acclaimed World of Warcraft and took over the MMORPG genre where it remains the leader to this day with 4, soon-to-be 5, subsequent expansions: World of Warcraft: The Burning Crusade, World of Warcraft: Wrath of the Lich King, World of Warcraft: Cataclysm, World of Warcraft: Mists of Pandaria, and World of Warcraft: Warlords of Draenor.

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Zynga's FarmVille

With the release of the iPhone and uprising of social networking sites such as: Facebook, Twitter, and Myspace the casual gaming genre and market was created. Notable casual games include: FarmVille and Angry Birds. Millions of people who never would have considered themselves gamers now while away hours playing games on these new platforms[12].

To round out to the present date, recently the release of three new consoles mark the eighth console generation. These consoles include: Nintendo's tablet based console the Wii U, Sony's PlayStation 4, and Microsoft's Xbox One. All three consoles aim at supplying the game with a universal environment that allows for media and gaming to be done on one device.

Technology Edit

As video games grew in popularity, developers often looked to new and innovative ways to create immersive experiences for players. Currently, video games are delivered on a variety of technological platforms.


Computers Edit

Early computers were the original video game platform. Many computer developers attempted to build classic non-electronic games like chess or blackjack into their creations' programming.

Initially, most computer-based games were text-based such as Adventure, as computers were not built with video games and graphics in mind[13]. Many basic games were created over time, with minimal graphics or technological requirements, until the late 1980s when educational games began to build in popularity. Graphical learning shifted some of the focus onto developing technology that could support video games with improved graphics rather than video games that were limited to the current computer technology[14]. Over the next few years, graphics-based video games grew to represent almost all video game options available for purchase for the computer. The graphics capabilities of computers were still very limited.

In 1990, Microsoft began offering basic games like Solitaire as part of their operating system packages resulting in video games reaching new players who would not previously have purchased a video game for the computer[15].

As technology improved, the intricacy and visuals of computer games also improved. By the early 1990s, graphics and memory became the limiting factors when looking to purchase a video game for the computer[16]. This is also the time video games started to expand to include online, multiplayer offerings such as Everquest in 1999[17]. Online video game technology added another limiting factor: modem technology. Now players needed a method to connect to the internet, as well as internet service, in order to fully enjoy any multiplayer game[18].

Peripheral technology that contributes to the gaming experience on computers includes audio equipment like headphones or speakers, recording equipment such as a microphone, and unique input devices including custom gaming mice, keyboards, keyboard overlays, controllers, and cameras. While most of this hardware is not required to play, many games are developed with one or more of these components in mind.


ConsolesEdit

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Original Ms. Pac-Man arcade console

Video game consoles grew from the idea of using the television as a monitor. Ralph Baer was the first to craft a system that was designed solely for video games, the Brown Box, rather than creating a game on an existing computer platform. Although limited to certain games, this started the differentiation between console and computer-based video games.

One of the most iconic video game console models is the arcade game-style consoles, which began with Pong in 1972[19]. This technology incorporates a monitor into the design as well as a method for initiating and storing currency transactions where players pay with either coins or tokens to start the video game. Each booth can only play the specific game built into it, however. These consoles are iconic to video games and remain relatively unchanged in terms of conceptual design or appearance. The only major change is the diversification of the controller. Arcade games now offer a variety of controller interfaces besides joysticks or buttons. Players can control game characters through steering wheels, simulated guns, weight-sensing pads the player stands on, or re-created vehicles such as motorcycles on or in which the user rides and the game translates the player's movements into the game. Inside, the graphics have vastly improved over time but still fall below the quality of current consumer consoles capabilities.

Pong soon made its way into the home using a home gaming console from Atari, but the system was still limited to the sole game until 1977 when Atari released the Atari 2600 which was the first console to feature joysticks, colour games, and the ability to change not only the game being played but the difficulty of the game[20]. This was a big step forward from the monochromatic games such as Pong. Atari's console was also one of the first to implement cartridges which gave the player the ability to change games rather than being limited to the pre-programmed choices[21]. Cartridges continue to be a staple in the video game console field, taking on various iterations as the technology develops.

Many other companies quickly began to create their own consumer consoles, as the demand grew[22]. The differences between many of the early models were improved graphics or increased variety of video games offered on the console.

Over saturation and few new game options led to a slow decline in consume console purchases until 1985 when Nintendo released the Nintendo Entertainment System in the US. This system followed the earlier design of controllers and cartridges but also featured video game-specific controllers allowing the player to simulate the action in the game.

Nintendo built on its success and ventured into the handheld market in 1989 with the Game Boy. Handheld gaming uses a different style of console where monitor, controller, and game system are all combined into one unit held in the hand of a player. Some basic models only play a pre-programmed game but many allow for game selection using the cartridge method seen in earlier console designs.

Over the next few years, many big names in the present video game industry released home consoles with very little change except improved graphics capabilities and the ability to access the internet, though few games existed that utilized this ability. Sega was unable to keep up with competitors and in 2000 left the home console market[23].

Black Nintendo DS with pen icon

Black Nintendo DS with included stylus

By 2001, the three remaining big names in home console systems, Microsoft, Sony, and Nintendo, had each released a popular console for home gaming providing improved graphics and interactivity[24]. Nintendo also pushed the boundary in handheld gaming releasing the Nintendo DS in 2004 which was the first handheld system to feature two screens, two processors, and multiplayer capabilities.

All home consoles had incorporated online video games by 2005 and Microsoft's Xbox 360 offered vastly improved processing, graphics, and online capabilities over competitors' products[25]. Nintendo's Wii, released in 2006, built on the original Nintendo home console, the Nintendo Entertainment System, and turned the controller into an immersion tool for gamers, allowing the console to read the movement of the controller and relate it to a corresponding action in the game. This resulted in physically active gaming, opening the market to sensor technology either in controllers, like the Playstation3's controllers, or with sensors next to the console that read the actions of the player without a controller, like the Xbox Kinect.

The newest releases of Sony and Microsoft's flagship systems in 2014 incorporate new advances in the console technology including voice commands and the use of the human body as controller technology. Video graphic capabilities, as always, are vastly improved offering more fluid and realistic imaging onscreen. Handheld gaming grew as well with the upgraded capabilities of the Nintendo 3DS providing 3D graphics and camera function where the PlayStation Vita allows game developers to provide GPS-based interaction[26].


Mobile Edit

With the ever-growing smartphone market, video game companies have a new field to target in video game design. The mobile phone video game market development followed the same lines as the console market in that mobile phones began with pre-programmed, minimal graphics video games as part of their interface. As time went on and smartphones began to permeate the market, the two major phone interface designers, Apple and Android, opened online stores where users could connect to download applications to their smartphones, many of which are either video games or incorporate video game aspects such as points or goals to attain.

Issues Edit

Violence Edit

Esrb-ratings-logo

Entertainment Software Ratings Board Logo for "Everyone" Rating

One of the most common complaints targeted towards the video game medium is overabundance of violence presented within the game’s content. The release of the controversial American fighting game Mortal Kombat in 1992 was the major reason for the push towards the regulation of video game content and themes[27]. The combination of the game’s over the top violence and realistic graphics led to multiple hearings from the U.S. senate that ran from 1992 into 1993[28]. The result of these hearings was the creation of the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB), an organization dedicated to informing the public on the age appropriateness of video game products[29]. The United Kingdom equivalent to the ESRB is the Pan European Game Information (PEGI) rating system[30]. Yet despite these regulations in place, video games have still been linked to real life violence such as in the Columbine school shooting in 1999. Many target the playing of violent video games as a primary influence for the shooters Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold[31].

Further issues may arise from online interactions within these video games. As the ESRB frequently explains, they cannot rate the age appropriateness of online interactions given their high level of unpredictability[32].

The online disinhibition effect is the theory that there is a tendency for one to lose their inhibitions within digital interactions since they are not face-to-face[33]. Psychology professor John Suler studied the nature of online interactions and claimed that there is a tendency for this loss of inhibition to lead to rude and aggressive behaviour[34]. This effect is made worse with the introduction of voice chat into online play.

Even with the ESRB enforcing age limitations, children are still able to obtain access to age-inappropriate content. Online interactions may also be damaging to children given that they are exposed to a variety of real-life personality types. In November 2013, a 46-year old man living in the UK had tracked down a child that was taunting him within an online multiplayer session of the game Call of Duty: Black Ops [35]. The man was stopped before he could harm the child, but the issue still remains that children may be exposed to aggressive individuals.


Sexuality Edit

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Grand Theft Auto San Andreas cover art

Certain video games have been criticized for their portrayal of sexual content to inappropriate audiences. In the 2005 video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, a mod was available to unlock the infamous “hot coffee” game mode[36]. With the mode enabled, an option was given for the player to invite a female into their house for some “coffee”, which was really just a code name for sex. The player would then be able to engage in what was essentially a virtual sex simulator[37]. After investigation by the ESRB, the game mode was taken down since its content far exceeded the appropriateness of the rating that it was given[38].

Beyond the controversy of the Hot Coffee mod, video games have still been able to present virtual sex in some way or another. In the highly successful God of War series, the hero is able to engage in various off-screen sex mini-games[39]. By pressing various buttons in a specific sequence, the intensity of the sexual encounters would increase[40]. Second Life, a MMORPG that allows for player generated content, is also notorious for allowing full nudity and even virtual sex[41].

For more information visit Sex and nudity in video games.


Video Game AddictionEdit

An issue surrounding the playing of video games is their addictive quality. This addiction can be characterized by the medium’s capacity to affect the everyday life of an individual[42]. Given that the nature of present day video games is to offer rewards for continuing play, the notion of addiction has become a considerable concern.

One of the primary concerns is the way in which video games may promote social isolation. Those who are addicted to video games may tend to withdraw themselves from real life social groups and hobbies[43]. The desire to escape real-life problems can in turn lead to depression. Isolation from video game addiction is especially a concern within children, since it may impede with normal social development[44].

Diablo-III beta Wizard-vs-Skeleton-King-2

Diablo-III beta Wizard vs. Skeleton King

The sedentary lifestyle that often accompanies the playing of video games can be detrimental towards one’s health and well-being. This concern is especially important within the lives of children, who should typically be participating in at least an hour of physical activity a day[45]. There are direct links between time spent within a sedentary position and levels of obesity[46]. Sleep deprivation is another issue that may arise from the overplaying of video games. In 2012, a Taiwanese teenager died after playing Diablo III for 40 hours without any pause[47]. Earlier within the same year, another boy died after playing League of Legends for a continuous 23-hour period[48].

For more information visit Video game addiction.



PiracyEdit

As is common with most popular and internet media, video games suffer from piracy issues. Piracy concerns around video games focus mostly on intellectual property protection and digital rights management. While not unique to video games, online piracy concerns have lead developers to draft innovative counter-measures such as console-unique codes that bind games to a specific console when used online[49], video games that are always online regardless of offline or online play[50], and developer-hosted servers that require accounts with the company to utilize[51]. Pirated media in general has prompted many countries to look at the digital rights of developers and digital content creators. In 1996 and 1998, this prompted the World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty and the U.S. Digital Millennium Copyright Act to be instituted. Other countries have begun to address these concerns, leading to some controversy, as in the case of the French law DADVSI (Loi sur le Droit d’Auteur et les Droits Voisins dans la Société de l’Information). Part of the challenge with online and digital property protection is the ability to infinitely duplicate and distribute items globally, crossing jurisdictions where such laws may not exist.

For more information please visit Digital Rights Management (DRM).

Benefits Edit

Community Edit

Video games have become a prominent source of community and communication. Not only has it allowed multiple users the means of communicating, it has improved our ways of communicating altogether. Video games have long been seen as an activity that isolates and alienates an individual from any social contact. However, since “communication richness depend(s) on the interaction between the medium and its users”[52], video games provide a multifaceted outlet for all types of people. They are “ideological spaces”, which allows worlds to be constructed by “particular viewpoints that tend to lead toward the expression of particular ideas”[53]. With the introduction of online gaming, these means of expression allow interactions “of dispersed groups of people with shared interests”[54] to form and grow at a substantial rate. These groups allow individuals the necessary ability to share their thoughts within a digital realm. Which has clear benefits seeing as community is known, in anthropological theory and practice, as something that is not distinguished by its real, imagined, or virtual characteristics[55]. Video games promote a “psychological sense of community”[56], which has been “identified as beneficial to the development of identity and the building of resilience and well-being”[57].

795px-BlizzCon opening ceremony

BlizzCon 2007 Opening Ceremony

Communities of common interest, such as those built from Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG), contributes to an individual's social motivations[58]
. An ever-changing gaming language dictates these social motivations, since it allows an expression of  “human emotions”[59]. Online games encourage players to “form groups and play other groups within the game environment”[60].  Relationships are formed within these online communities, and provide support to players whether they face real or virtual problems. For many players, video games facilitate a "greater level of intimacy and self-disclosure" than they normally would in a real world setting[61]. In the massive multiplayer game World of Warcraft, players have come together in the past to mourn the loss of a friend outside of the online world. Video games establish long-term friendships that extend beyond the gaming platform, and help players cope with hardship. As communities begin to form around video games, so do fandoms. BlizzCon, Blizzard Entertainment’s convention in Anaheim, California, celebrates the fans and their dedication to the games. These conventions bring together people and allow them to bond over common gaming interests. These conventions provide players a necessary outlet to display their passions in the real world. Which ultimately provides many a sense of acceptance, and “an opportunity to exercise their positive characteristics or to develop new ones in a self-actualizing process”[62].

For more information on the WoW funeral incident, click here


Education Edit

With the emergence of video games, new and improved ways of learning have surfaced. Several studies have shown that video games have positive effects in the ways in which students absorb and use information both inside and outside of the classroom. Since video games have become known as one of “the most important entertainment media for youngsters”, education within the realm of gaming has proven to be beneficial. Video games are known to be “intrinsically motivating”, which ultimately leads to a positive attitude towards learning[63]. Video games are no longer seen as simply an “opportunity”, but rather an “imperative” towards the amelioration of educational practices[64]. They create educational practices that prepare students for a “life in an information/knowledge rich economy”[65]. Video games do so by providing multiple benefits for a wide range of learners, young and old. Traditionally, games were used for “factual recall”. Games such as Reader Rabbit were often used since they were easily integrated into “didactic curriculum[66].

As different genres of video games emerged, so did the benefits attached to educational gaming. Interactive video games have proven to increase the motor skills of pre-schoolers between the ages of three to six[67]. Games on Nintendo’s Wii console have shown to improve hand-eye coordination and skills ranging from kicking to throwing[68]. Video games have also shown to improve the creativity of middle school students, as researchers discovered that those who were advent video gamers found it easier to draw and write stories in school[69].

Starcraft2zerg

StarCraft II Zerg Gameplay

Video games motivate even the most “under-motivated” teens who typically do not perform well in school[70]. Games aimed at learning curriculum through game strategies drastically improve grades, and overall social skills[71]. Strategic games, such as Civilization and StarCraft, are built “with clear goals and provide immediate feedback”, therefore improving a student's ability to reach their own personal goals[72]. Assessment skills are also improved through video games, as students actively improve schoolwork following constructive feedback from their teachers[73].

Well-designed games encourage students to “adapt and design learning and teaching styles most suitable to them”, which ultimately leads to a more “active role in learning”[74]. Video games support problem-based learning , “allowing players to see the results of their actions” to “play out much faster than they could in real time”, ultimately leading to better decision-making and innovating skills[75]


Physical and Mental Health Edit

Video games provide multiple physical and mental health benefits. They can be used as therapy for children with learning disabilities, such as dyslexia. After playing video games, their reading abilities greatly improve. They are able to read faster with better accuracy, a feat that would usually take one year of “spontaneous reading development” compared to a single twelve-hour session of gaming[76]. Video games have also been prescribed for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), as it exercises specific sectors of the brain and helps improve their focus[77]. Video games have also shown to reduce stress, tension, anger, depression, and fatigue while also increasing vigour[78]. In adults, these benefits improve changes “in brain activity and heart variability”[79]. In children, excessive video game use has been shown to improve overall positive outlook, while also assuring they do not find themselves in detrimental friend groups[80]. Video games also have shown to boost self-esteem , which ultimately leads to better relationships with friends and family[81]

450px-Dance Dance Revolution Extreme arcade machine

Dance Dance Revolution Extreme arcade machine

They have also found to provide pain relief for people suffering with severe illnesses. In particular, cancer patients who play video games 
are typically happier and show a more positive outlook on their situation[82]HopeLabs created Re-Mission, a game where patients can destroy cancer cells, while learning about various treatments. Virtual reality games have also provided a necessary distraction for burn victims following their painful incidents. The games distract them from the pain by draining “attention resources” so that there is “less attention available to process pain signals”[83]

Video games can also improve the vision of those suffering from cataracts. Playing fast paced first-person shooters like Bioshock or Call of Duty require an extreme amount of attention, which ultimately exercises the extra ocular muscles of the visually impaired[84]. It also improves their ability to perceive “fine differences in contrast[85]. Video gaming also “enhances gray matter in brain areas crucial for spatial navigation, strategic planning, working memory and motor performance”[86].

With the emergence of “exergaming”, there has been an improvement in gamers’ physical health. People who play games that require them to “move their feet in time with signals on a screen”, such as Dance Dance Revolution, “are at lower risk of type 2 diabetes than those who run on a treadmill”[87]. In terms of behaviour, video games can change a players way of thinking so that players “can learn to make wise, more ethical decisions in real-life scenarios”[88].

Video Games in Popular CultureEdit

Video games feature prominently in many movies, television shows, and other popular culture media. Some notable references include:

MoviesEdit

Television ShowsEdit

Other MediaEdit

  • In 1999, HORSE the Band became known for their use of Nintendo-inspired 8- and 16-bit music.
  • Kaiser Chiefs released Oh My God in 2004 which mentions Pac-Man.
  • The Guild webseries (2007-2011) follows the real world lives of MMORPG players.
  • Cee-Lo Green's F*ck You (2010) references the video game consoles Xbox and Atari (namely the Atari 2600).
  • Visitors to the Walt Disney World Resort in Florida have the opportunity to meet and greet with Wreck-It Ralph and Vanellope Von Schweetz.

References Edit

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[25]Squire, Kurt D.. Video-Game Literacy: A Literacy of Expertise. Web: June 13, 2007. http://website.education.wisc.edu/kdsquire/tenure-files/04-video-game%20literacy.pdf.

[26]Wilson, Samuel M. and Leighton C. Peterson. "The Anthropology of Online Communities". Reviews in Advance. Web: June 14, 2002. http://jrichardstevens.com/articles/wilson_peterson.pdf.

[27]Fong, Paul and Peter M. Forster. "The Social Benefits of Computer Games". 44th Annual APS Conference, 2009. Web. http://www.academia.edu/705294/The_Social_Benefits_of_Computer_Games.

[28]Redmond, Dustin L.. "The effect of video games on family communication and interaction". Digital Repository @ Iowa State University. Web: 2010. http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2651&context=etd.

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[31]Spector, Dina. "11 Ways Video Games Make You Smarter and Healthier". Business Insider: Tech. Web: September 11, 2013. http://www.businessinsider.com/heath-benefits-of-video-games-2013-9#video-games-can-make-us-better-people-9.

[32]Henion, Andy and Linda Jackson. "Video Game Playing Tied to Creativity". Michigan State University News: Science & Technology. Web: November 2, 2011. http://msutoday.msu.edu/news/2011/video-game-playing-tied-to-creativity/.

[33]Cool, Lisa Collier. "Surprising Health Benefits of Video Games". Yahoo! Health. Web: April 3, 2012. http://health.yahoo.net/experts/dayinhealth/surprising-health-benefits-video-games.

[34]McClarty, Katie Larson, Orr, Aline, Frey, Peter M., Dolan, Rober P., Vassileva, Victoria, and Aaron McVay. "A Literature Review of Gaming in Education". Pearson Research Network. Web: June 2012. http://researchnetwork.pearson.com/wp-content/uploads/Lit_Review_of_Gaming_in_Education.pdf.

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[39]Syatt, Steve. "Rainmaker Entertainment Inc. Reboots Mainframe Entertainment As Its New Television Division". Rainmaker Entertainment Inc. Press Release, September 30, 2013. Web. http://www.rainmaker.com/?/site/news/82.

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